Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another, in which each script of one writing system is converted by the corresponding script (or scripts) of another writing system.
Four types of graphic conversion are available:
1) one script by one script;
2) one script by two or more scripts;
3) several scripts by one script;
4) several scripts by. several scripts
Unlike the transcription, which corresponds to the exact conversion of the sounds of the language, the transliteration (Lat. litera - letter) refers to the written form of the language: a text written in one script is converted by the script of another writing system.
The need for transliteration emerged at late 19th century when establishing the Prussian scientific libraries for the entry of manuscripts written in the languages with Latin, Cyrillic, Arabic, Indian and other writing systems in a single catalogue. The instructions for the transliteration compiled for these libraries in the 20th century served as the basis for a standard translation from non-Latin writing systems into Latin ones.
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